In a flipped classroom, students watch online lectures , collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home while engaging in concepts in the classroom with the guidance of a mentor. In the traditional model of classroom instruction, the teacher is typically the central focus of a lesson and the primary disseminator of information during the class period. The teacher responds to questions while students defer directly to the teacher for guidance and feedback.
In a classroom with a traditional style of instruction, individual lessons may be focused on an explanation of content utilizing a lecture-style. Student engagement in the traditional model may be limited to activities in which students work independently or in small groups on an application task designed by the teacher.
Class discussions are typically centered on the teacher, who controls the flow of the conversation. Often, video lessons prepared by the teacher or third parties are used to deliver content, although online collaborative discussions, digital research, and text readings may be used.
It has been shown that the ideal length of the video lesson to be is eight to twelve minutes. Flipped classrooms also redefine in-class activities. In-class lessons accompanying flipped classroom may include activity learning or more traditional homework problems, among other practices, to engage students in the content. Class activities vary but may include: In , Alison King published "From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side," in which she focuses on the importance of the use of class time for the construction of meaning rather than information transmission.
Harvard professor Eric Mazur played a significant role in the development of concepts influencing flipped teaching through the development of an instructional strategy he called peer instruction. Mazur published a book in outlining the strategy, entitled Peer Instruction: He found that his approach, which moved information transfer out of the classroom and information assimilation into the classroom, allowed him to coach students in their learning instead of lecture.
Lage, Platt and Treglia published a paper entitled "Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment" , which discusses their research on flipped classrooms at the college level. In their research focusing on two college economics courses, Lage, Platt, and Treglia assert that one can leverage the class time that becomes available from the inversion of the classroom moving information presentation via lecture out of the classroom to media such as computers or VCRs to meet the needs of students with a wide variety of learning styles.
Wesley Baker was experimenting with these same ideas at Cedarville University. He presented a paper discussing what he termed the "classroom flip" at an education conference in the year in what may be the first published mention of the word "flip" associated with this model of teaching and learning.
Kaw and Hess published a paper in to compare the effectiveness of 4 instructional modalities for a single topic of a STEM course - i traditional lecture, ii blended what they called "Web-enhanced lecture" , iii Web-based self-study and iv flipped what they called "Web-based self-study and classroom discussion".
Statistical analysis of the assessment data indicated that the second modality, in which Web-based modules for instruction were used during face-to-face lecture delivery mode, resulted in higher levels of student performance and satisfaction. Perhaps the most recognizable contributor to the flipped classroom is Salman Khan.
In , Khan began recording videos at the request of a younger cousin he was tutoring because she felt that recorded lessons would let her skip segments she had mastered and replay parts that were troubling her. For some, Khan Academy has become synonymous with the flipped classroom; however, these videos are only one form of the flipped classroom strategy. The Wisconsin Collaboratory for Enhanced Learning has built two centers to focus on flipped and blended learning.
The classroom structure houses technology and collaboration-friendly learning spaces , and emphasis for those involved in the program is placed on individualized learning through non-traditional teaching strategies such as flipped classroom.
Woodland Park High School chemistry teachers Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams began practising flipped teaching at the high school level when, in , they recorded their lectures and posted them online in order to accommodate students who missed their classes. The flipped class had many students who had already failed the class—some multiple times. After 20 weeks, students in the flipped classroom were outperforming students in the traditional classrooms.
The traditional classroom showed no change. Results on standardized tests went up in , but then dropped however. MEF University , a non-profit private university located in Istanbul, Turkey, is the first university in the world that has adopted the "flipped classroom" educational model university-wide.
While flipped classroom have been found effective in secondary schools, [ citation needed ] flipped methods may also be effective in improving student learning at the community college level.
The flipped classroom model allows faculty to engage students in innovative ways, both inside and outside the classroom, and to employ a range of modern teaching tools and approaches. This may be effective in diverse classroom environments with students who have different learning preferences.
Proponents of flipped classrooms in higher education  have had an interest in seeing this put into practice in university classrooms. Professors at the University of Graz conducted a study  in which lectures were video recorded in a manner in which students could have access to them throughout the semester of a lecture-based course on educational psychology.
The professors surveyed how the students used their educational tools: The majority of students The remainder of the students either rarely watched podcasts Students that watched the videos more than their peers performed better than those who chose otherwise.
In traditional schools, each topic in class receives a fixed amount of time for all students. Flipped mastery classrooms apply a mastery learning model that requires each student to master a topic before moving to the next one. Mastery learning was briefly popular in the s, and was revived by Benjamin Bloom in While it is difficult to implement in large, traditional classrooms, it has shown dramatic success in improving student learning.
Mastery rewards students for displaying competence. Students who initially turn in shoddy work must correct it before moving on. Before flipping, mastery learning was impractical in most schools.
It was not possible to give different lectures for different groups of students. Testing was also impractical, because fast-learning students could reveal the test to those who followed. In a flipped mastery classroom, students view each lecture and work on each exercise or project when they have mastered the precursors.
Sullivan estimated that 40 to 60 hours of work outside school for each of 12 units per course were required the first year. Flipped mastery eliminates two other out-of-class routines: The latter happens in class and in person. Replacing lectures with group and individual activities increases in-class activity. Every student has something to do throughout the class.
In some classes, students choose how to demonstrate mastery—testing, writing, speaking, debating and even designing a related game. They create a different test for each student from a pool of questions. Advanced students work on independent projects while slower learners get more personalized instruction.
Students may be more likely to favor the Flipped Classroom approach once they have taken the time to personally participate in this specific type of learning course. In a prior pharmaceutics course, for instance, a mere After all of the students had participated in the Pharmaceutical Flipped Classroom course, the number of those favoring this method of learning increased significantly, reaching a total of Students may initially have certain doubts or fears regarding the use of Flipped Classroom, including:.
Flipped Classroom is composed of various components, such as this information only represents a few examples:. It has been determined, through several conducted experiments, that certain aspects of the Flipped Classroom approach are more beneficial to students than others. For instance, in a study conducted on the feedback received from students who had participated in a Flipped Classroom teaching module for college English reading, the following results were derived:.
From these specific statistics, it can be determined that students felt that their experience within the Flipped Classroom was greatly benefitted by certain aspects of the course such as the learning guide provided , while other portions of the module may have been unnecessary or insignificant to their learning such as the video form of the module.
There are various benefits attributed to the idea of utilizing the Flipped Classroom approach, some including:. Not all families are from the same socio-economic background, and thus access to computers or video-viewing technology outside of the school environment is not possible for all students. This model of instruction may put undue pressure on some families as they attempt to gain access to videos outside of school hours .
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