You can also conduct your study on the many problems that the patients have to go through like strained family relations, social acceptance and economic problems.
Basically, for writing breast cancer literature review you need to include related terminology in you literature review to make it narrower. While searching for the right topic on this theme, you need to make sure that your research topic is supported with relevant articles that will help in the study. Before taking the topic to your supervisor, make sure that it is supported by articles that have been published in authentic journals.
You also need to make sure that your research topic will not become obsolete in the near future and that the scope of the research is just right. It should be wide enough to be significant but should be narrow enough to be covered within the designated time frame. Get your Research Topic Brief of words on your field of study in just business days including…. What is Primary Research?
Claim your FREE 2: Spark new ideas Know the structure and format of the dissertation Know what to include in each chapter and much more Effective Tips and Topic Ideas for Literature Review on Breast Cancer Are you a first year medical student who has to hand in a thesis or dissertation to graduate? According to NABCO cancer is a group of more than different diseases and occurs when cells become abnormal and are without control or order. The cells then continue to divide if when new ones are not needed.
During the change from a normal cell to a cancerous cell, however, the cells requires many different gene alterations. Eventually these altered genes form a tumor which may be benign non-cancerous or malignant cancerous.
A benign tumor can damage local tissue but fortunately will not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors on the other hand spread to other areas of the body damaging and destroying healthy tissue. A gene that is commonly found in breast cancer patients which have a high incidence of familial causes is the BRCA gene.
While comparing healthy and cancerous cells of women diagnosed with the disease his team noticed that a gene called DBC2 had been completely deleted in the cancerous cells of seven women. This recent discovery may aid in the detection of the underlying causes of breast cancer. As stated earlier the gene which causes inherited breast cancer is better understood.
BRCA is a tumor suppressor gene. This gene is normally programmed to slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time. There are believed to be many risk factors of this disease, unfortunately, the reasons for the many of the risks are often unclear.
The most validated reason for breast cancer is estradiol exposure. For this reason, being a woman is the greatest risk factor of all. Women have many more breast cells which are constantly being exposed to growth hormones. White women are also higher risk than their black counterparts, though the reason for this is not known Apantaku, ACS, Due to estradiol, an early onset of menses or the late development of menopause puts a woman at greater risk because there are an increased number of menstrual cycles leading to extra estradiol production.
For this same reason, women whose cycles are shorter than 25 days; women who have used conventional animal estrogens or synthetic hormone for more than five years; and those women who used birth control before their first pregnancy, before 20, or for more than five years before 35 double and possibly triple the risk for developing breast cancer.
Hereditary, dietary and lifestyle factors are also contributors to beast cancer risk. Women whose mothers had breast cancer are at twice the risk for developing this disease, generally the younger the mother is at the time of diagnosis the greater the risk.
If a sister has breast cancer or a brother has prostate the risk can increase even more. Diets high in fat are also linked to this illness; because more fat cells produce more estrogen, high fats promote early onset of menstrual cycle, and there are hydrogenated fats from trans-fatty acids found in margarine which are considered cacogenic. Increased alcohol consumption also promotes increased estrogen levels. Lack of regular, physical exercise can also be a risk factor, because exercise directly decreases estradiol absorption and improves immune response.
Now that some of the risk factors are known, can breast cancer be prevented? While it is not possible to completely prevent the disease it is possible to reduce the risk with a hormone called Tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen drug which is most often taken in pill form for approximately five years.
This hormone is not only used as a preventive treatment for development of cancer in those people who have not had it , but it is also used to prevent a second episode of the disease and to prevent further tumor development during the actual disease process. Unfortunately, this therapy does not come without side effects. The use of this drug increases the risk for developing uterine carcinoma, a rare and potentially serious condition. Other side effects include weight gain, mood swings, hot flashes, blood clots and cataracts.
Because of these serious side effects it is important for a patient to weigh their options, but more often then not the benefits prevail. Symptoms found with breast cancer are masses, pain, erythema, nipple drainage, and enlarged lymph nodes. The most common complaint which causes women to seek medical attention is a breast mass.
The etiology for fibroadenoma is unknown, but the pathogenesis is a clonal stromal component. There is proliferation of both the ducts and the stroma, numerous fibroblasts of the stroma can be seen along with a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm.
The typical duct epithelium often lines the glandular spaces which may lead to compression because of this fibrous proliferation. There are two types of breast pain, cyclic and non-cyclic. Non-cyclic pain however, is often only experienced in certain area of the breast.
This pain may sometimes be caused by injury or trauma to the breast such as after a breast biopsy. It is associated with both pre and post menopausal women and is most common in 40 to 50 year old. Although these pains often subside after a couple of years and are not usually associated with breast cancer the possibility still exists and therefore should be discussed with a physician. Another symptom is erythema, an abnormal redness of the skin.
There is dilation of the superficial capillaries of the skin which then leads to inflammation and redness. The tumor or cyst may cause this hypersensitive, inflammatory reaction, although it is not known for sure. Yet another symptom related to breast cancer can be nipple discharge. The majority of nipple discharges are associated with non-malignant changes and are often caused by hormonal changes.
Basically, for writing breast cancer literature review you need to include related terminology in you literature review to make it narrower. While searching for the right topic on this theme, you need to make sure that your research topic is supported with relevant articles that will help in the study.
BIRTH CONTROL AND BREAST CANCER: SAMPLE RESEARCH. This 6-page paper studies sampling and survey design and attempts to put this to the test by developing a special survey and sample to determine the connection between breast cancer and birth control. Included is a sample questionnaire. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Jun 01, · I am conducting my dissertation research study in the area of breast cancer survivors and predictors of depression. I am seeking women breast cancer survivors between the ages of 18 and 80 to participate in my study. A 3 page research paper that evaluates the accuracy of an article on nutrition that asserts that eating sufficient fruits and vegetables reduces the risk for breast cancer. The writer first summarizes the article's main points, than evaluates its accuracy by comparing it to more recent research.
Fight Against Breast Cancer With Help From Ford Support is available for: research. Help on dissertation breast cancer - phd dissertation help See Prescribing & Safety Information Plus Boxed Warning On Official loqonujodohok.gqs in breast cancer treatment. Every stage. Help On Dissertation Breast Cancer. help on dissertation breast cancer ABSTRACT. Ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy has high sensitivity in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study is aimed at (Photo: Irina Souiki) Ive wanted to publish this post for years.